Discourse Analysis

Discourse Analysis

Nama   : Nabiella Syifarani

Nim     : 2201410090

Simpson, James.2011.The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics. New York: Routledge

 

Introduction

Applied linguistics (AL) interest in discourse analysis (DA) originated in an awareness of the inability of formal linguistics to account for how participants in communication achieve meaning. Discourse can be defined as a stretch of language in use, of any length and in any mode, which achieves meaning and coherence for those involved. Discourse analysis can be defined as the use and development of theories and methods which elucidate how this meaning and coherence is achieved. This quest makes DA inevitably concerned not only with language, but with all element and processes which contribute to communication. The AL DA tradition thus currently combines the strengths of linguistics and non-linguistic perspectives, making it the most powerful and rigorous tool for the analysis of language in use. Consequently, it has a great deal to offer to social theory and sociology on the one hand, and to linguistics on the other.

            An issue for this chapter is how to distinguish DA from the other approaches to language use included elsewhere in this volume. The study of ESP, EAP, institutions, medical communication, the media, and classrooms all involve the practice of DA, while conversation analysis, corpus linguistics, critical discourse analysis, linguistic ethnography, multimodal analysis, and stylistics are all among its tools. Each such area of study is in its own field or in its own way concerned with the achievement of meaning in actual communication, making each a constituent of DA as much as of AL.

Early AL DA

            In the 1950s DA was understood in theoretical structural linguistics as the potential extension of language analysis beyond the level of single sentences to discover distributional principles between sentences as well as within them (Harris 1952).

            At this point in its history, DA was fairly readily defined as an extension of formal linguistics, or a refutation of it, depending on one’s point of view. However, as AL has moved away from a conception of itself as an extension of linguistics, and acquired a more complex disciplinary identity, encountering other definitions of discourse in the process, this definitions has become problematic. There are many varieties of DA, none of which is in itself coterminous with DA as a whole, yet there is also no ‘pure’ version of DA which is not one of these varieties, or an amalgam of several.

Text, context, and discourse

Much early DA work in AL saw text (the linguistic element in communication) as essentially distinct from context (the non-linguistic elements) and discourse as the two in interaction to create meaning. If context and text are separate, then the status of text itself becomes precarious.

If considered as linguistic forms, temporarily and artificially separated from context for the purposes of analysis, text ceases to have any actual existence, and seems at odds with the aim of DA to deal with the realities of language in use rather than linguistic abstractions. There is no use of language which does not also have a situation, participants, co-text, paralanguage, etc.

 

Pragmatics

Interest in the role of context led initially to the classic texts of pragmatics (Austin 1962; Searle 1969, 1975; Grice 1975) and attention to how discourse is structured by what speakers are trying to do with their words, and how their intentions are recognized by their interlocutors.

 

Schema theory

Schema theory is a powerful tool in DA as it can help to explain both high level aspects of understanding such as coherence, and low level linguistic phenomena such as article choice. In the binary conception of discourse as text + context a schema can be classed as context, as it is a kind of knowledge, derived from experience of the world, in whose light each new text is interpreted.

 

Conversation analysis

CA’s primary interest is in the social act (Seedhouse 2004: 3) and it ‘is only marginally interested in language as such’ (Hutchby and Wooffift 1998: 14). CA made use of newly available recording technology to transcribe and closely analyze actually occurring conversation, seeking to understand how participants ‘make sense of, find their way about in, and act on the circumstances in which they find themselves’ (Heritage 1984: 4) and through this close analysis to understand the patterns of social life (Bhatia et al. 2008: 4) as realized in talk.

Although initially concerned with conversation, later CA work has moved on to study talk in a variety of contexts. CA it confines itself, in the interests of methodological rigor, to the analysis of the immediate mechanisms of talk, avoiding speculation about the mental states these mechanisms reflect and create, or the larger social realities and histories which they both constitute and reflect.

 

Ethnography, language ecology, linguistic ethnography

           

Ethnography seeks an understanding of culture through an analysis of all details of everyday life in a given context. One particular ethnographic notion from which DA can benefit is that of the irreducibility of experience. The ethnographer’s preoccupation with the relationship between researcher and participants, and how findings, may be skewed by the former’s identity and preconceptions.

Arguing that close linguistic analysis is always a sound entry point into cultural understanding, linguistic ethnographers draw upon a number of precedent influences. LE seeks simultaneously to ‘tie ethnography down’ and ‘to open linguistics up’ making it highly relevant resource for DA.

Besides, ecology seeks to relate language use to its physical and social environment, and the affordances this environment provides. It sees language as a historically contingent phenomenon negotiated in daily interactions, and pays particular attention to the dynamic relation of language and cultural change, historical expansion, displacement (e.g. by migration), continuity, and transformation.

 

 

 

Semiotics, paralanguage and multimodality

The notion of language without paralanguage is indeed one of the idealizations of linguistics against which DA defines itself. Every spoken utterance has a volume, speed, pitch and intonation in addition to its linguistic form, propositional content and pragmatic force, and these paralinguistic elements convey key information about the speaker’s identity, attitude, and commitment. The issues of how paralanguage can be transcribed and analyzed raises considerable problems as paralinguistic phenomena are of their nature graded, irreducible and often ambiguous, and transcriptions of them necessarily a selection and an interpretation.

            Multimodal analysis concerns itself largely with the multiple dimensions of meaning made possible by modern printing, computer and mobile technologies, paying attention to the significance of the presentation of the written words themselves (Walker 2001), in different fonts, colors, sizes, arrangements, animations, etc., and to the many communicative modes with which they co-occur, such as still and moving pictures, music, diagrams, tables, etc.

 

Larger structures

Despite their differences, all of the approaches discussed so far have an important element in common. Though they may aim for, and obtain, far reaching conclusions about communication, culture and society, they take as a starting point a fine-grained analysis of language in use, assembling evidence of what happens in instances of communication, before making generalizations. Other approaches, however, take the opposite approach, they are:

 

–        Genre analysis

 

Genre analysis seeks to understand any communicative event as an instance of a genre, defined as ‘a class of communicative events which share some set of communicative purposes’ (Swales 1990: 58). The examples are academic articles, news bulletins, advertisements, prayers, operas, menus. Genre analysis then seeks, through fine-grained analysis, to identify the conventions which characterize these different genres.

 

–        Critical discourse analysis (CDA)

 

CDA is concerned with ideology, power relations and social injustices, and how these are represented and reproduced through language. While CDA has attracted widespread support it has also been subjected to criticism for bias and partiality (Widdowson 1995, 1998), lack of rigor and circularity (Stubbs 1998), and confusion and inconsistency in its cognitive and linguistic theoretical bases (Stubbs 1998; O’Halloran 2003) or methodology (Hammersley 1997).

 

Back to detail and forward to generalization: corpus linguistics

The advent of corpus analysis, however (see Adolphs and Lin, this volume) has enabled DA partially to redress these shortcomings, and to add a quantitative dimension to research. With its power to place any particular instance of language in the context of its use across a wide range of comparable texts or the language as a whole, corpus comparisons have enabled discourse analysts to talk with confidence about the typicality of any text under consideration.

Yet in its quest for understanding of how participants in communication achieve meaning, DA cannot limit itself to textual analysis alone, any more than it can limit itself to the cultural and psychological context of language use without attention to actual text.

 

 

Final words

Whether discourse analysis still has any identity separate from the many traditions on which it has drawn. While it may be commendable to draw eclectically upon the strengths of many research traditions to gain a rich insight into communication, there is a valid case for saying that there is no longer a single theory or method of analysis which can be clearly labeled as discourse analysis.

 

 

 

 

 

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Gender

March 27, 2013

Name: Nabiella Syifarani
NIM: 2201410090

Language and Gender (also known as ‘Gender and Language’ or ‘Feminist Linguistics’) is a relatively new field within sociolinguistics. Ethnographically, linguists keen to gather authentic data to explore and explain folk-linguistic beliefs that males and females speak and act differently. Ideologically, language and gender scholars aimed to show that language – both in use and as a form of representation – was a primary means of constructing gender differences, and at times hierarchies and inequalities between men and women.
– History of the area

Variationist studies

Most language and gender research on use assumes a ‘sex-preferential’ perspective – a male/ female preference for using different forms of the same language. Classic variationist studies looked for evidence of sex-preferential speech in large-scale Interactional studies

The field of language and gender is most strongly associated today with a range of ‘interactional’ studies, which focus on the distinctively gendered ways in which people interact in various social and professional contexts. Three early but still highly influential theories (deficit, dominance, difference).

Deficit theory

Lakoff’s (1975) ‘deficit’ theory posited that from an early age, girls are taught how to use a separate ‘woman’s language’: they are socialized to use language in a ‘ladylike’ way.

Dominance theory

Lakoff’s (1975) thesis that women constructed their own subordination through their language use was a forerunner of ‘dominance’ theory. This had two distinct, parallel branches: language as social interaction, which considered how gender inequalities were constructed through routine interactions between men and women, and language as a system focusing on ‘sexism’ within the language.

Cultural difference theory

The contrasting conversational goals corresponded to differently gendered speech ‘styles’, whereby ‘women speak and hear a language of connection and intimacy, while men speak and hear a language of status and independence’ (Tannen 1990: 42). So, Coates (1988) argued that women’s talk should be ‘re-valued’ in much more positive ways by feminist linguists as different but equal, as complementary to men’s, not deficient.

– Main current issues

Social constructionism and the ‘post-modern turn’

According to the social constructionist theory, individuals don’t have gender, they do gender through repeated behavioral and linguistic interactions. This post-modern perspective argues that males and females do not have an individual essence, character or ‘core’. Any apparent characteristics are the effects we produce by way of particular things we do. Language is not just a medium to convey social life and interactions, but an essential, constitutive factor. So particular uses of language become culturally associated with masculinity and femininity; they become symbolically gendered or ‘index’ a gendered identity, rather than being the property or attributes of males and females.
Gender and sexuality

Sexuality is perceived as fluid, multi-faceted and a form of desire/identity that is constructed and performed through speech and behavior, and not simply determined by the sex of people’s bodies at birth or by early socialization.
A social constructionist perspective allows theorists to contest the culturally dominant association of (for example) same-sex preference with gender deviance because it transgresses the traditional gender dichotomy, and to reframe this as an investigation of alternative, hybrid, and exploratory identities and practices.

The salience of gender

A social constructionist approach does not lead logically to the demise of the field if it is extended to consider the construction and representation of gender and sexuality in text and discourse. Here, the notion of relevance, the idea that gender becomes relevant in some contexts but less so in others, is an important theme across both local and global perspectives.

– Future trajectory and new debates

The new debates are emerging within language and gender literature which are mentioned here are: the rise of biological essentialism, an extended role for communities of practice, and exploiting the plurality of research methodologies.
The first is the possible challenge posed by a resurgence of biological explanations of gender, spearheaded by the Darwinist science of evolutionary psychology. One of the discourses of biological essentialism is that women are ‘hard-wired’ to have more advanced verbal and linguistic abilities whereas men have more sophisticated spatial and mathematical skills.
A second new direction in the field is a proposal to extend the well-established concept of ‘communities of practice’ (within language and gender research in order to enable an ‘articulation between the local, the extra-local and the global’). According to the CofP concept, social practice emphasizing the social significance of what people do, goes well beyond simple individual acts or conversations (as studied by conversation analysis) to socially regulated, repeated and interpreted collaborative doings. On the other hand, Eckert and McConnell-Ginet (2007: 35) argue that it is unreasonable to expect single researchers always to link their study of specific communities of practice to global or ideological patterns, they propose that a unified interdisciplinary research community ‘can keep its collective eye on those connections’.
This interdisciplinary note, as a third new direction for language and gender, concerns the wide range of research methodologies through which the discipline is currently investigated. Here, research methodologies are not simply instrumental, but are conceptually driven with specific theoretical and epistemological imperatives.

 

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Definition Applied Linguistic

Nama   : Nabiella Syifarani

Nim     : 2201410090

Definition and the scope of applied linguistics

1. Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice dealing with practical problems of language and communication that can be identified, analysed or solved by applying available theories, methods or results of Linguistics or by developing new theoretical and methodological frameworks in linguistics to work on these problems.

(Brumfit, C. J. (1995), ‘Teacher professionalism and research’, in G. Cook and B. Seidlhofer (eds.) Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press)

2. Applied linguistics is an area of work that deals with language use in professional settings, translation, speech pathology, literacy, and language education; and it is not merely the application of linguistic knowledge to such settings but is a semiautonomous and interdisciplinary domain of work that draws on but is not dependent on areas such as sociology, education, anthropology, cultural studies, and psychology.

(Alastair Pennycook, Critical Applied Linguistics: A Critical Introduction. Routledge, 2001)

3. Applied linguistics began life in the 1950s as a postgraduate qualification. Its initial target, largely language teaching, has always been practical, policy-oriented. Its preparation at postgraduate level has been multidisciplinary and, as in mathematics, there is a continuing tension between pure (general, theoretical) linguistics and applied linguistics. It does not expect its conclusions to be buttressed with certainty (and it is unclear whether theoretical linguistics or any other social science can expect that, either). For applied linguistics, there is no finality: the problems such as how to assess language proficiency, what is the optimum age to begin a second language, what distinguishes native and non-native speakers, how we can treat memory loss, these problems may find local and temporary solutions but the problems recur. No doubt, once again, the same may be said of theoretical linguistics: whether all grammars are fundamentally one grammar; what the relation is between the sign and the referent answers are partial, never final–the problems remain.

(Alan Davies, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics: From Practice to Theory, 2nd ed. Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2007)

4. Applied linguistics is any attempt to work with language in a critical and reflective way, with some ultimate practical goal in mind. This includes (amongst other things): deliberately trying to learn (or teach) a foreign language or to develop your ability in your native language; overcoming a language impairment; translating from one language to another; editing a piece of writing in a linguistically thoughtful way. It also includes doing any research or developing any ideas or tools which aim to help people do these sorts of things.

( Phil Durrant Visiting Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Education, Bilkent University

http://www.cambridge.org/servlet/file/store7/item5633198/version1/Article_What%20is%20applied%20linguistics.pdf )

5. ‘Applied linguistics’ (AL) is one of several academic disciplines focusing on how language is acquired and used in the modern world. It is a somewhat eclectic field that accommodates diverse theoretical approaches, and its interdisciplinary scope includes linguistic, psychological and educational topics. Although the field’ s original focus was the study of foreign/second languages, this has been extended to cover first language issues, and nowadays many scholars would consider sociolinguistics and pragmatics to be part of the AL rubric. Recently, AL conferences and journals have reflected the growing influence of psychology-based approaches, which in turn is a reflection of the increasing prevalence of cognitive (neuro)science in the study of human mental functions.

( Zoltán Dörnyei  Professor of Psycholinguistics, University of Nottingham )

http://www.cambridge.org/servlet/file/store7/item5633198/version1/Article_What%20is%20applied%20linguistics.pdf

6. Applied linguistics as it relates to language teaching is  a fairly modern phenomenon. It arose in the 1940’s, in the latter part of the Second World War.

( Albert Weideman, Department of Didactics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535. E-mail: albertw@uwc.ac.za)

7. The term ‘applied linguistics’ refers to a broad range of activities which involve solving some language-related problem or addressing some language-related concern.

( G. Richard Tucker.(n.d).Applied Linguistic. Retrieved from http://lsadc.org/info/ling-fields-applied.cfm )

8. Applied linguistics is a discipline which explores the relations between theory and practice in language with particular reference to issues of language use. It embraces contexts in which people use and learn languages and is a platform for systematically addressing problems involving the use of language and communication in real-world situations. Applied linguistics draws on a range of disciplines, including linguistics. In consequence, applied linguistics has applications in several areas of language study, including language learning and teaching, the psychology of language processing, discourse analysis, stylistics, corpus analysis, literacy studies and language planning and policies.

( Dawn Knight.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved fromhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics )

 

9. Applied linguistics is strictly any application of linguistics. But often in practice of a discipline which applies the findings of linguistics, among others, in education: e.g. or especially to teaching English as a foreign or second language.

( The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. P. H. Matthews. Oxford University Press, 2007. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press )

10. Applied Linguistics, which draws from theories of language acquisition to develop first and second language teaching methodologies and to implement successful literacy programs.

(Crystal, D. (1987). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press )

 

 

 

 

The Scopes of Applied Linguistic

 

 a.      Language and Teaching

This scope covers methods of language teaching. In doing teaching learning activity, linguistic is applied on those methods.

b.      Language and Society

The branch in this scope is called sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistic studies about the relationship between the society and language, and explore/solve the problem related to society that affects the language, varieties of language in society, terms of taboos and euphimism, etc.

c.      Language Education/Learning

This scope tries to explain about the first language education, additional language education such as second language education and foreign language education. It also help us to know about clinical linguistic and language testing. Clinical linguistic is the study about language disability.

d.      Language, Work and Law

The scope of Language, Work and Law explain about communication in the workplace, language planning, and forensic linguistic.

e.      Language, Information and Effect

It studies the literary stylistics, critical discourse analysis, translation and interpretation, information design, and lexicography.

( Mai Mustafa Fouad Ra’fat Ali.(n.d).Applied Linguistic.Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/58883443/Applied-Linguistics-1-the-Scope-of-Applied-Linguistics)

 

Nama   : Nabiella Syifarani

Nim     : 2201410090

Definition and the scope of applied linguistics

1. Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice dealing with practical problems of language and communication that can be identified, analysed or solved by applying available theories, methods or results of Linguistics or by developing new theoretical and methodological frameworks in linguistics to work on these problems.

(Brumfit, C. J. (1995), ‘Teacher professionalism and research’, in G. Cook and B. Seidlhofer (eds.) Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press)

2. Applied linguistics is an area of work that deals with language use in professional settings, translation, speech pathology, literacy, and language education; and it is not merely the application of linguistic knowledge to such settings but is a semiautonomous and interdisciplinary domain of work that draws on but is not dependent on areas such as sociology, education, anthropology, cultural studies, and psychology.

(Alastair Pennycook, Critical Applied Linguistics: A Critical Introduction. Routledge, 2001)

3. Applied linguistics began life in the 1950s as a postgraduate qualification. Its initial target, largely language teaching, has always been practical, policy-oriented. Its preparation at postgraduate level has been multidisciplinary and, as in mathematics, there is a continuing tension between pure (general, theoretical) linguistics and applied linguistics. It does not expect its conclusions to be buttressed with certainty (and it is unclear whether theoretical linguistics or any other social science can expect that, either). For applied linguistics, there is no finality: the problems such as how to assess language proficiency, what is the optimum age to begin a second language, what distinguishes native and non-native speakers, how we can treat memory loss, these problems may find local and temporary solutions but the problems recur. No doubt, once again, the same may be said of theoretical linguistics: whether all grammars are fundamentally one grammar; what the relation is between the sign and the referent answers are partial, never final–the problems remain.

(Alan Davies, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics: From Practice to Theory, 2nd ed. Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2007)

4. Applied linguistics is any attempt to work with language in a critical and reflective way, with some ultimate practical goal in mind. This includes (amongst other things): deliberately trying to learn (or teach) a foreign language or to develop your ability in your native language; overcoming a language impairment; translating from one language to another; editing a piece of writing in a linguistically thoughtful way. It also includes doing any research or developing any ideas or tools which aim to help people do these sorts of things.

( Phil Durrant Visiting Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Education, Bilkent University

http://www.cambridge.org/servlet/file/store7/item5633198/version1/Article_What%20is%20applied%20linguistics.pdf )

5. ‘Applied linguistics’ (AL) is one of several academic disciplines focusing on how language is acquired and used in the modern world. It is a somewhat eclectic field that accommodates diverse theoretical approaches, and its interdisciplinary scope includes linguistic, psychological and educational topics. Although the field’ s original focus was the study of foreign/second languages, this has been extended to cover first language issues, and nowadays many scholars would consider sociolinguistics and pragmatics to be part of the AL rubric. Recently, AL conferences and journals have reflected the growing influence of psychology-based approaches, which in turn is a reflection of the increasing prevalence of cognitive (neuro)science in the study of human mental functions.

( Zoltán Dörnyei  Professor of Psycholinguistics, University of Nottingham )

http://www.cambridge.org/servlet/file/store7/item5633198/version1/Article_What%20is%20applied%20linguistics.pdf

6. Applied linguistics as it relates to language teaching is  a fairly modern phenomenon. It arose in the 1940’s, in the latter part of the Second World War.

( Albert Weideman, Department of Didactics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535. E-mail: albertw@uwc.ac.za)

7. The term ‘applied linguistics’ refers to a broad range of activities which involve solving some language-related problem or addressing some language-related concern.

( G. Richard Tucker.(n.d).Applied Linguistic. Retrieved from http://lsadc.org/info/ling-fields-applied.cfm )

8. Applied linguistics is a discipline which explores the relations between theory and practice in language with particular reference to issues of language use. It embraces contexts in which people use and learn languages and is a platform for systematically addressing problems involving the use of language and communication in real-world situations. Applied linguistics draws on a range of disciplines, including linguistics. In consequence, applied linguistics has applications in several areas of language study, including language learning and teaching, the psychology of language processing, discourse analysis, stylistics, corpus analysis, literacy studies and language planning and policies.

( Dawn Knight.2009.What is Applied Linguistic. Retrieved fromhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/16212220/What-is-Applied-Linguistics )

 

9. Applied linguistics is strictly any application of linguistics. But often in practice of a discipline which applies the findings of linguistics, among others, in education: e.g. or especially to teaching English as a foreign or second language.

( The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. P. H. Matthews. Oxford University Press, 2007. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press )

10. Applied Linguistics, which draws from theories of language acquisition to develop first and second language teaching methodologies and to implement successful literacy programs.

(Crystal, D. (1987). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press )

 

 

 

 

The Scopes of Applied Linguistic

 

 a.      Language and Teaching

This scope covers methods of language teaching. In doing teaching learning activity, linguistic is applied on those methods.

b.      Language and Society

The branch in this scope is called sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistic studies about the relationship between the society and language, and explore/solve the problem related to society that affects the language, varieties of language in society, terms of taboos and euphimism, etc.

c.      Language Education/Learning

This scope tries to explain about the first language education, additional language education such as second language education and foreign language education. It also help us to know about clinical linguistic and language testing. Clinical linguistic is the study about language disability.

d.      Language, Work and Law

The scope of Language, Work and Law explain about communication in the workplace, language planning, and forensic linguistic.

e.      Language, Information and Effect

It studies the literary stylistics, critical discourse analysis, translation and interpretation, information design, and lexicography.

( Mai Mustafa Fouad Ra’fat Ali.(n.d).Applied Linguistic.Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/58883443/Applied-Linguistics-1-the-Scope-of-Applied-Linguistics)

 

 

 

 

 

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definition of applied linguistics

Nama  : Nabiella Syifarani

Nim     : 2201410090

 

Definitions:

Applied linguistics is not easy to define because people would think of many things when it comes to applied linguistics. In fact, those who practice applied linguistics do not agree upon a certain definition. Therefore, there is a gap that needs to be filled in terms of defining applied linguistics. The definition problem is due to the lack of agreement on what is that to be applied?” A mediation between theory and practice “as Kaplan and Widdowson, ” a synthesis from a variety of disciplines including linguistics” as Hudson said, “presupposition of linguistics because a person cannot apply what he does not know” as Corder implied.

In addition, an extreme area of applied linguistics that is called critical applied linguistics highlights the following concerns and issues like identity, ethics, disparity, desire and the reproduction of otherness that have not been up to now considered to be connected to applied linguistics. What have been mentioned is an attempt to use applied linguistics concerns and activities to explain and analyze what applied linguistics methods and purposes are. This is called the ostensive definition approach.

These ostensive views have a problem because they really do not help in creating syllabuses in applied linguistics and they do not help in determining what things that are needed to be included in the profession. Those who argue for a dictionary definition believed that applied linguistics has a core do not accept ostensive definitions. For example, Widdowson claims that applied linguistics has got a core and he rejects the claim that says that applied linguistics is a mixture of many disciplines.

Widdowson and Cook believed that “the task of applied linguistics is to mediate between linguistics and language use”. Another definition of applied linguistics by Guy Cook is “the academic discipline concerned with the relation of knowledge about language to decision making in that real world”. However, the scope of applied linguistics is still not clear. He tried to create boarder lines to the areas of concern in applied linguistics as consisting of language and education, language, work and law and language, information and effect. The most important thing is that applied linguistics must be protected from the claim that says that language is everywhere, then applied linguistics is the science of everything.

Source and Target:

An important question that must be asked that is what the sources of applied linguistics are. Of course, it is obvious that once applied linguistics is mentioned, the first thing that comes to a person’s mind is simply linguistics. This because applied linguistics is associated with linguistics. However, linguistics is not the only source that applied linguistics takes from. Although, linguistics plays an important role in applied linguistics, applied linguistics has other sources such as psychology, sociology, education, measurement theory and so on. Another important question is what the target of applied linguistics is. It is clear that the main target of applied linguistics has to do with language teaching. In addition, language teaching includes speech therapy, translation and language planning. By accepting the following working definition that is, “applied linguistics is the theoretical and empirical investigation of real – world problems in which language is the central issue”. These real – world problems include the following failure and success, ability and disability, ethical and cultural, gender issues, technology and lack of resources, difficulty and simplicity and child and adult.

Emergence of the term Applied Linguistics:

In 1948, there was a journal, which was founded in Michigan University and called Language Learning. This journal was the first journal that carried the term-applied linguistics. It was mentioned in an article, which was called Language learning in 1967. However, the term-applied linguistics meant the application of linguistics. One of the editors has emphasized the wide range of theories and research methods that are used to investigate language studies in 1993. However, doing this cost a price which is abandoning the term applied linguistics. In here, the editor wanted to give his own interpretation of applied linguistics because he thought that the reader of the journal would understand a journal of research in language studies as a functional interpretation of applied linguistics.

 

 

Restriction of the Scope:

During the 1960s and 1970, it was taken for granted that applied linguistics was about language teaching. This was important because there was a need for language teaching especially English after the Second World War. This showed that a number of teachers, trainers and supervisors lacked language knowledge. It is accepted that applied linguistics is trying to solve language problems that people encounter in the real world. Then, the scope of applied linguistics should not be restricted to language teaching only. In fact, the scope should be broadening to cover language acquisition either the mother tongue or a target language, psych/neuro linguistics, sociolinguistics and so on.

Solution of terminology problem:

Corder suggested the idea that applied linguistics in only restricted to language teaching. This idea was open to criticism because applied linguistics is opened to other sources like education, psychology, sociology and so on. Spolsky argued that applied linguistics is educational linguistics. Other scientists believed that applied linguistics cover an area wider than language teaching. Each educational institution in America, Europe and Australia gives a course in linguistics analysis in terms of applied linguistics curriculum. These courses are about sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics or second language acquisition.

Conclusion:

The problem about applied linguistics is that it is not a common one among applied disciplines. Applied linguistics has emerged in the 1950s and its main target is language teaching. Applied linguistics has no limits because it assesses language proficiency issues, what is the appropriate age of starting teaching and learning a second language, memory loss and so on. The solution of such problems are local and for the present time. Therefore, applied linguistics is a need because it is applied on different societies that face the mentioned problems.

It is clear that English played an important role in developing applied linguistics. The contribution of the English language to the development of applied linguistics is due to the domination of the English language in terms of politics and economics. All applied fields disciplines develop because of the need to provide training in newly appearing technical and professional occupation. This implies that the relationship between theoretical linguistics and applied linguistics should put applied linguistics in the first position and theoretical linguistics in the second position. By this sequence, theoretical linguistics will respond to the questions raised by applied linguistics. For example, if a problem is faced in the area of error analysis, the reference will be second language acquisition.

– References:

1.”History and Definition” of Applied Linguistics, (ch.1) by Alan Davies (2007), An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, Edinburg University Press.

2.”Applied Linguistics: A Twenty – First – Century Discipline” (ch.2) by William Grabe cited in The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics, edited by Robert B. Kaplan, (2010) 2nd edition, Oxford University Press.

By Mohammed I. Al-Herz

Supervised by Dr. Alaeddin Hussain, Department of English Language

King Faisal University

 

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definition of applied linguistics

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Question of Chapter 4

sla chapter 4

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1. What is the meaning of ‘interlanguage ?
it is a unique linguistic system that draws, in part, on the learner`s L1, but also different
from it as well as from the target language.
2. What is the type of behaviorist learning theory?
a. Classical Conditioning
b. Instrumental or Operant Conditioning
3. What is the concept of mentalist theory of language learning?
Concept mentalist theory:
a) only human beings are capable of learning language
b) they are equipped with a faculty for this, referred to as Language Acquisition Device
c) it is the primary determinant of LA
d) input is needed, but only as a `trigger´

4. What is the meaning The concept of fossilization in SLA ?
Intrinsically related to IL that Selinker (1972) considers it to be a fundamental phenomenon of all SLA and not just to adult learners. Fossilization has received such wide recognition that it has been entered in the Random House Dictionary of the English Language (1987). Selinker’s concept of fossilization is similar to that of Tarone (1976), Nemser (1971), and Sridhar (1980), all of whom attempted to explore the causes of fossilization in L2 learners’ IL.
Fossilization has attracted considerable interest among researchers and has engendered significant differences of opinion. The term, borrowed from the field of paleontology, conjures up an image of dinosaurs being enclosed in residue and becoming a set of hardened remains encased in sediment. The metaphor, as used in SLA literature, is appropriate because it refers to earlier language forms that become encased in a learner’s IL and that, theoretically, cannot be changed by special attention or practice of the TL. Despite debate over the degree of permanence, fossilization is generally accepted as a fact of life in the process of SLA.
5. What the model of a computational of L2 acquisition?
Input – intake – L2 Knowledge – output.

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